IV.  Explorations


(1) Spot the PATTERN in its simplest form (as in mathematics). (2) From the pattern identify the STEM and the ENDING (for convenience below we often separate these by a hyphen). (3) Learn examples that conform to the pattern (regular). (4) Learn examples that deviate from the pattern (irregular).


[Kennedy 32]

5 Patterns or "declensions". Identify by the ending of the genitive singular (from dictionary): (1) -ae (2) -i (3) -is (4) -ûs (5) -ei Wnat precedes this is called the STEM from which we decline the rest of the noun according to the pattern.


[K 70-75]

2 Basic patterns related to noun declensions. (1) 1st/2nd declension. Masculine has endings like 2nd declension nouns in -us or -er Feminine has endings like 1st declension nouns in -a Neuter has endings like 2nd declension nouns in -um Eg: M F N nominative on-us bon-a bon-um : good [K 71] genitive bon-i bon-ae bon-i (2) 3rd declension. Decline like masculine, feminine and neuter nouns of the 3rd declension (exception: ablative often ends in -i). Masculine and feminine are often identical. Eg: M F N nominative ingens ingens ingens : huge [K 74] genitive ngent-is ingent-is ingent-is


[K 111-112]

4 Patterns or "conjugations". Identify by present infinitive, the second of its principle parts (column (B) below). This gives the present stem; perfect stem from perfect indicative ((C) below). (A) (B) (C) (D) Conjug- Present Present Perfect Supine ation indicative infinitive indicative (1) am(a)-o ama-re amav-i amat-um :  love (2) mone-o monê-re monu-i monit-um : advise (3) reg-o reg-ere rex-i rect-um : rule (4) audi-o audi-re audiv-i audit-um : hear


[K 116-119]

[ Present stem  ] [ Perfect stem ] Pres Future Imperf Perfect Future Plu- simple perfect perfect Conjugations (1) and (2): 1s -o -bo -bam -i -ero -eram 2s -s -bis -bas -isti -eris -eras 3s -t -bit -bat -it -erit -erat 1p -mus -bimus -bamus -imus -erimus -eramus 2p -tis -bitis -batis -itis -eritis -eratis 3pl -nt -bunt -bant -erunt -erint -erant Conjugations (3) and (4): 1s -o -am -ebam As conjugations (1) and (2) 2s -(i)s -es -ebas 3s -(i)t -et -ebat 1pl -(i)mus -emus -ebamus 2pl -(i)tis -etis -ebatis 3p -unt -ent -ebant


[K 116-119]

Singular: Present stem: ama, monê, rege, audi Plural: Present stem + te: ama-te, monê-te, audi-te but note reg-ite Irregular 3rd conjugation singular imperatives [K 118n] Dico: dic - say Duco: duc - lead Fero: fer - bear, bring Facio: fac - do, make Prohibitions [K 349] Noli (s) or nolite (pl) followed by present infinitive ((B) above) Noli regere: Do not rule


[K 120-123]

Present, future simple and imperfect tenses - start with the active form and then substitute so that 1s -o or -m becomes -or or -r 2s -s -ris (but regeris not regiris 3s -t -tur  in present for 3rd 1pl -mus -mur  conjugation) 2pl -tis -mini 3pl -nt -ntur For instance "He shall be ruled" is reg-etur. Perfect, future perfect, pluperfect passive are formed from a combination of perfect participle passive (see below) and present, future or imperfect tense of sum, respectively as amatus sum, amatus ero, amatus eram   PARTICIPLES Present Participle Active [K 116-119] Present stem + (e)ns ama-ns, monê-ns, eg-ens, audi-ens Meaning: loving etc These decline like a 3rd Declension adjective with stem ending nt-, like ingens, (gen ingent-is) [K 74] Future Participle Active [K 116-119] Stem from supine ((D) above), dropping the -um) Ending -urus declines as 1st/2nd declension adjective amat-urus, monit-urus, rect-urus, audit-urus. Meaning: about to love etc Perfect Participle Passive [K 120-123] Stem from supine ((D) above, dropping the -um) Ending -us declines as 1st/2nd declension adjective amat-us, monit-us, rect-us, audit-us Meaning: having been loved, etc It is also combined in the nominative (all genders), with parts of sum to generate compound passive forms. For instance in the perfect passive indicative "They (f. pl) have been loved" is amat-ae sunt (literally, "They are having been loved").


Present Infinitive Active  [K 116-119] As (B) above. Perfect Infinitive Active [K 116-119] From (C) above: add -isse to perfect stem: amav-isse, monu-isse, rex-isse, audiv-isse Meaning: to have loved etc Future Infinitive Active  [K 116-119] Future participle active + esse: amaturus esse, moniturus esse etc Meaning: to be about to love etc Present Infinitive Passive  [K 120-123] As present infinitive active, final e replaced by i: ama-ri, monê-ri, audi-ri Exception reg-i Meaning: to be loved etc Perfect Infinitive Passive  [K 120-123] Perfect participle passive + esse: amatus esse, monitus esse, rectus esse, auditus esse Meaning: to have been loved (literally, to be having been loved) etc Future Infinitive Passive [K 120-123] Supine + iri: amatum iri, monitum iri etc Meaning: to be about to be loved etc


Present Subjunctive Active [K 116-119] Present stem + -am, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant eg reg-am, reg-as, reg-at etc. Exception 1st conj am-em, am-es, am-et, am-emus, am-etis, am-ent. Present subjunctive is often translated "may" or "let". Imperfect Subjunctive Active  [K 116-119] Present infinitive active + -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt eg regere-m, regere-s, regere-t etc Imperfect subjunctive is often translated "might", "were to" or "would". Perfect Subjunctive Active  [K 116-119] As future perfect indicative but 1st sing ends -erim. Pluperfect Subjunctive Active  [K 116-119] Perfect infinitive active + -m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt eg rexisse-m, rexisse-s, rexisse-t ... Pluperfect subjunctive is often translated "would have". Present and Imperfect Subjunctives Passive [K 120-123] As the active forms, making the usual substitutions (-m becomes -r etc) to get the passive. Perfect Subjunctive Passive  [K 120-123] Perfect participle passive + present subjunctive of sum: amatus sim, sis, sit; amati simus, sitis, sint Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive [K 120-123] Perfect participle passive + imperfect subjunctive of sum: amatus essem, essês, esset; amati essêmus, essêtis, essent. GERUND AND GERUNDIVE [K 107] The gerund is a neuter active verbal noun meaning "the act of" doing. It is formed by adding -(e)ndum to the present stem and declines like a 2nd declension neuter noun. Thus ama-ndum, monê-ndum, reg-endum, audi-endum [K 116-119] The gerundive is an adjective, passive in meaning, as "fit to be" or, "ought to be" done. It is formed like the gerund but with the endings of a 1st/2nd declension adjective ama-nd-us, -a, -um etc. So audiendus means "fit to be heard" or "ought to be heard" [K 120-123]


[K 94-101c]

is, ea, id that, or he, she, it hic, haec, hoc this, or he, she, it ille, illa, illud that, or he, she, it iste, ista, istud that (often pejorative) idem, eadem, idem the same (declines like is, ea, id) ipse, ipsa, ipsum self qui, quae, quod who, which (relative), or who?, what? (interrogative) quis, quis, quid who?, what? alius, alia, aliud (some or an-)other alter, altera, alterum one or the other (of two) Summary [K 100,102] Pronouns broadly follow the pattern of 1st/2nd declension adjectives. But genitives singular often end -ius datives singular often end -i. Pronouns beginning ali- mean "some ..." eg aliquis, someone; aliquot, some number. Pronouns beginning t- often translate "so" or "such" eg tam, so; tot, so many tantus, so great; talis, of such a kind, such Pronouns beginning qu- often translate by an English "wh-" or "how". Eg: qui and quis: who, which, what (above) quam: how, as; quot: how many quantus: how great; qualis: of what kind Pronouns ending -cumque denote -ever, -soever: Eg: quicumque: whoever, whatever Parallelisms are common : tam...quam; tot...quot; alter...alter etc [K 335]


Indirect statement (reported speech) (Substantival/noun) In classical Latin this is normally done by [K 414] subject in the accusative verb in the infinitive "that" omitted, eg Scio eum bonum esse - I know that he is good (Literally, I know him to be good) In Church Latin this may be done by quia / quod (that) with the indicative. Consecutive clauses (Adverbial) [K 421-422] Anticipated by some form of "so" in the main clause (eg ita, tam, sic, or tot "so many", tantus "so great") Then ut (that, with the subjunctive) (negative, ut non) Final clauses (Adverbial) [K 423] Ut (so that / in order to, with a subjunctive) Ne (so that not, in order not, like ut) (Note: ut on its own or with an indicative usually means "as", like sicut "just as") Causal clauses (Adverbial) [K 424-426] quia / quod (because, with the indicative or subjunctive) Cum (since, with the subjunctive) Temporal clauses (Adverbial) [K 427-436] cum (when, with indicative or (in the past) subjunctive) antequam (before) } both normally with the indicative postquam (after) } Conditional clauses (Adverbial) [K 437-443] Si (if, with indicative or subjunctive) Nisi (if not / unless, like si) Concessive clauses (Adverbial) [K 444-447] Etsi, etiamsi, tametsi (even if, with indic. or subj.) Quamquam (although, with the indicative) Quamvis, licet (although, with the subjunctive) Relative clauses (Adjectival) [K 450] Qui, quae, quod (who / which, with an indicative)


[K 237]

The ablative absolute takes the form of two ablatives in succession. One is a noun or pronoun, the other is usually a participle. Attempt a translation along the lines of "When the is / was / had been " and then rephrase into smoother English when you have understood it. Eg Caesare venturo: When Caesar is about to come, ie Caesar being on his way Most commonly the participle is PRESENT (in which case ACTIVE) or PERFECT (in which case PASSIVE): caenantibus omnibus : when all were eating his auditis : when these things had been heard CONJUNCTIONS [K 236-238] Conjunctions regularly encountered include et : and atque : and at : but sed : but autem : but, however (2nd word) vero : but, moreover (2nd word) nam : for enim : for (2nd word) ergo } itaque } : therefore (usually 2nd word) igitur } etiam : also quoque : also (2nd word) RULES FOR UNSEENS Initially: (1) Read the passage twice over to try and identify the context. Apply the following suggestions for each sentence: (2) Identify the separate main and subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses are often but not always enclosed in commas. (3) Try bracketing off subordinate clauses and other units as you find them so as to clarify the structure. Apply the following suggestions for each clause, starting with the main clause: (4) Find the verb. This is often but not always the last word in the clause. (5) Parse the verb : identify voice (active / passive), number (singular / plural), person (1st / 2nd / 3rd), mood (indicative / subjunctive / imperative / infinitive etc) (6) Identify its subject (a noun or pronoun in the nominative case, or built into the verb?) (7) Identify the object if any in the accusative or perhaps dative case (indirect objects) (8) Look for any ablative absolutes (active / passive) (9) Look for parallel structuring: [K 179] Eg: aut ... aut : either ... or vel ... vel : either ... or sive ... sive : whether ... or nec ... nec (or, neque ... neque) : neither ... nor tam ... quam : so ... as (etc see PRONOUNS above) When you find words you do not know: (10) Mentally put "something" until you can make a sensible guess. (11) With compound verb stems (simple verb name preceded by a preposition eg re-, con-, pre-, ad-, in-, ab-, per-), try first translating the simple stem on its own. Then see what flavour is added by the proposition (eg per- often suggests "completely"). Eg convocare: vocare means to call; convocare, to call together. abicere: iacere means to throw; abicere, to throw away. pervenire: venire means to come; pervenire, to arrive at. (This doesn't work for invenio which means to find, not come in! - English "invention") (12) Look for English derivatives. These often come from the supine eg frango, I break, has supine fractum, from which we get "fracture". Martin Mosse, August 1998. Written to accompany Church Latin for Beginners - An Elementary Course of Exercises in Ecclesiastical Latin  by J. E. Lowe, M.A. (London: Burnes Oates & Washbourne Ltd, 1930). References "[K nnn]" are to sections in Kennedy's Revised Latin Primer (London: Longman, 1962).